AACR Annual Meeting 2019: Preclinical Steps Toward a Cancer Preventive Vaccine for Lynch Syndrome

Cancer prevention refers to measures that people can take to reduce their risk of developing cancer. These measures can include lifestyle changes, like eliminating tobacco use, maintaining a healthy weight, staying active, and limiting exposure of skin to ultraviolet light. As our scientific knowledge of cancer etiology and the biology of premaligancy has grown, so too has our ability to rationally develop targeted and immunotherapeutic interventions for cancer prevention, in particular for those who inherit genetic mutations that predispose them to developing cancer.

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Recent Advances in Colorectal Cancer Research

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. More than 50,000 people are estimated to have died from colorectal cancer in the United States last year, according to federal statistics.

Colorectal cancer typically begins as a slow-growing, noncancerous polyp which, over time, can progress to invasive cancer. If a cancerous polyp isn’t removed, it can penetrate the lining of the large intestine, allowing the cancer to spread to other organs through blood or lymph vessels. With screening, it is possible to detect and remove polyps before they become cancerous. An increase in colorectal cancer awareness and screening has most likely contributed to the overall reduction in colorectal cancer incidence in the last 30 years.

As March is Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month, we’ve put together a selection of recent colorectal cancer studies across the AACR portfolio along with screening recommendations and risk factors associated with this disease.

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Hyperglycemia and Aggressive Prostate Cancer Risk

Rates of diabetes in the United States are increasing. According to statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an estimated 23 million Americans received a diagnosis of diabetes in 2015, in contrast to 1.6 million Americans in 1958. Our risk for diabetes increases as we age; over 25 percent of those ages 65 or older had diabetes in 2015, according to the CDC.

Diabetes is a risk factor for several types of cancer, including liver, pancreatic, and endometrial cancers. While this association is complex, some possible biological links include insulin resistance and hyperglycemia.

Previous work to understand the relationship between hyperglycemia and prostate cancer risk and mortality have yielded mixed results. A recent study published in Cancer Prevention Research evaluated whether hyperglycemia, as measured through multiple biomarkers, is associated with prostate cancer incidence and mortality.

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World Cancer Day 2019: Education and Inspiration Around the Globe

On February 4, 2019, organizations around the globe will come together to recognize World Cancer Day, bringing awareness to the immense burden of cancer that continues to be felt throughout the world. Joining the global community in showing support to all those affected by cancer, the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) raises awareness about cancer and cancer research by educating the public about cancer, both in the United States and internationally.

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Gauging Progress Against Cervical Cancer

January is Cervical Cancer Awareness Month. Given that January was named after the Roman god Janus, whose two faces allowed him to look both backward into the old year and forward into the new one, it seemed a good time to look back at the progress we made against cervical cancer in 2018 and to look for ways to build on the progress and further reduce the incidence and mortality of the disease in the future.

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Recent FDA Approvals Signal More Progress Against Cancer

The past month has seen the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) expand the use of four anticancer therapeutics, providing new treatment options for patients with four types of cancer. On Aug. 16, 2018, the agency approved the immunotherapeutic nivolumab (Opdivo) for treating certain patients with small cell lung cancer and approved the molecularly targeted therapeutic lenvatinib (Lenvima) for treating certain patients with the most common type of liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma.

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An Important Skin Cancer Prevention Reminder: Don’t Fry

Skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States. Every year, about 5 million Americans are treated for various forms of the disease.

Skin cancer types include basal and squamous cell cancers, as well as melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer. About 73,870 Americans are expected to be diagnosed with melanoma this year. Survival rates are significantly higher when the disease is diagnosed at its earliest stage.

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Why Is Liver Cancer on the Rise?

Although liver cancer isn’t as prevalent as lung cancer or breast cancer, this cancer is now the fastest-increasing cause of cancer death in the United States. In the Spring 2018 issue of Cancer Today, contributing editor Sue Rochman explored contributing factors for the increased liver cancer incidence since the mid-1970s.

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AICR Guest Post: Healthy Habits to Lower Cancer Risk

Editor’s note: February is Cancer Prevention Month. That’s why the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) has been pleased to support the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) Cancer Prevention: Together We Can campaign, an initiative dedicated to promoting evidence-based information to reduce cancer risk. This blog post was developed and shared by the AICR.

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Why We Need Tailored Tobacco-control Strategies

Cigarette smoking is linked to 18 different types of cancer. It is the leading preventable cause of cancer in the United States, accounting for 19 percent of the 1,570,978 cancers diagnosed in U.S. adults ages 30 and older in 2014, according to the latest research. Another 0.4 percent of the cancer diagnoses in the U.S. that year were attributable to exposure to secondhand smoke.

That’s why February, which is National Cancer Prevention Month, is a good time to raise awareness of the dangers of cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke.

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